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Maus & MetaMaus

Art Spiegelman discusses Maus & MetaMaus – BBC News

 

 

Horror Comic Books!

Confidential File: Horror Comic Books!

 

mattkprovideo.com/2017/10/18/horror-comic/

 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/EC_Comics

Entertaining Comics, more commonly known as EC Comics, was an American publisher of comic books, which specialized in horror fictioncrime fictionsatiremilitary fiction and science fiction from the 1940s through the mid-1950s, notably the Tales from the Crypt series. In 1954–55, censorship pressures prompted it to concentrate on the humor magazine Mad, leading to the company’s greatest and most enduring success. Initially, EC was privately owned by Maxwell Gaines and specialized in educational and child-oriented stories. Later, during its period of notoriety, it was owned by his son, William Gaines.

Educational Comics 

225 Lafayette Street, home of EC Comics

The firm, first known as Educational Comics, was founded by Max Gaines, former editor of the comic-book company All-American Publications. When that company merged with DC Comics in 1944, Gaines retained rights to the comic book Picture Stories from the Bible, and began his new company with a plan to market comics about science, history and the Bible to schools and churches. A decade earlier, Max Gaines had been one of the pioneers of the comic book form, with Eastern Color Printing‘s proto-comic book Funnies on Parade, and with Dell Publishing‘s Famous Funnies: A Carnival of Comics,[1] considered by historians the first true American comic book.[2]

Entertaining Comics 

When Max Gaines died in 1947 in a boating accident, his son William inherited the comics company. After four years (1942–46) in the Army Air Corps, Gaines had returned home to finish school at New York University, planning to work as a chemistry teacher. He never taught but instead took over the family business. In 1949 and 1950, Bill Gaines began a line of new titles featuring horrorsuspensescience fictionmilitary fiction and crime fiction. His editors, Al Feldstein and Harvey Kurtzman, who also drew covers and stories, gave assignments to such prominent and highly accomplished freelance artists as Johnny CraigReed CrandallJack DavisWill ElderGeorge EvansFrank FrazettaGraham IngelsJack KamenBernard KrigsteinJoe OrlandoJohn SeverinAl WilliamsonBasil Wolverton, and Wally Wood. With input from Gaines, the stories were written by Kurtzman, Feldstein and Craig. Other writers including Carl WesslerJack Oleck and Otto Binder were later brought on board.

EC had success with its fresh approach and pioneered in forming relationships with its readers through its letters to the editor and its fan organization, the National EC Fan-Addict Club. EC Comics promoted its stable of illustrators, allowing each to sign his art and encouraging them to develop idiosyncratic styles; the company additionally published one-page biographies of them in the comic books. This was in contrast to the industry’s common practice, in which credits were often missing, although some artists at other companies, such as the Jack KirbyJoe Simon team, Jack Cole and Bob Kane had been prominently promoted.

EC published distinct lines of titles under its Entertaining Comics umbrella. Most notorious were its horror books, Tales from the CryptThe Vault of Horrorand The Haunt of Fear.[3] These titles reveled in a gruesome joie de vivre, with grimly ironic fates meted out to many of the stories’ protagonists. The company’s war comics Frontline Combat and Two-Fisted Tales often featured weary-eyed, unheroic stories out of step with the jingoistic times. Shock SuspenStories tackled weighty political and social issues such as racismsexdrug use and the American way of life. EC always claimed to be “proudest of our science fiction titles”,[4] with Weird Science and Weird Fantasy publishing stories unlike the space opera found in such titles as Fiction House‘s Planet ComicsCrime SuspenStories had many parallels with film noir. As noted by Max Allan Collins in his story annotations for Russ Cochran‘s 1983 hardcover reprint of Crime SuspenStories, Johnny Craig had developed a “film noir-ish bag of effects” in his visuals, while characters and themes found in the crime stories often showed the strong influence of writers associated with film noir, notably James M. Cain. Craig excelled in drawing stories of domestic scheming and conflict, leading David Hadju to observe:

To young people of the postwar years, when the mainstream culture glorified suburban domesticity as the modern American ideal– the life that made the Cold War worth fighting– nothing else in the panels of EC comics, not the giant alien cockroach that ate earthlings, not the baseball game played with human body parts, was so subversive as the idea that the exits of the Long Island Expressway emptied onto levels of Hell.[5]

Superior illustrations of stories with surprise endings became EC’s trademark. Gaines would generally stay up late and read large amounts of material while seeking “springboards” for story concepts. The next day he would present each premise until Feldstein found one that he thought he could develop into a story.[6] At EC’s peak, Feldstein edited seven titles while Kurtzman handled three. Artists were assigned stories specific to their styles. Davis and Ingels often drew gruesome, supernatural-themed stories, while Kamen and Evans did tamer material.[7]

With hundreds of stories written, common themes surfaced. Some of EC’s more well-known themes include:

  • An ordinary situation given an ironic and gruesome twist, often as poetic justice for a character’s crimes. In “Collection Completed” a man takes up taxidermy in order to annoy his wife. When he kills and stuffs her beloved cat, the wife snaps and kills him, stuffing and mounting his body. In “Revulsion”, a spaceship pilot is bothered by insects due to a past experience when he found one in his food. At the conclusion of the story, a giant alien insect screams in horror at finding the dead pilot in his salad. Dissection, the broiling of lobstersMexican jumping beansfur coats and fishingare just a small sample of the kind of situations and objects used in this fashion.
  • The “Grim Fairy Tale”, featuring gruesome interpretations of such fairy tales as “Hansel and Gretel“, “Sleeping Beauty” and “Little Red Riding Hood“.[8]
  • Siamese twins were a popular theme, primarily in EC’s three horror comics. No fewer than nine Siamese twin stories appeared in EC’s horror and crime comics from 1950 to 1954. In an interview, Feldstein speculated that he and Gaines wrote so many Siamese twin stories because of the interdependence they had on each other.[9]
  • Adaptations of Ray Bradbury science-fiction stories, which appeared in two dozen EC comics starting in 1952. It began inauspiciously, with an incident in which Feldstein and Gaines plagiarized two of Bradbury’s stories and combined them into a single tale. Learning of the story, Bradbury sent a note praising them, while remarking that he had “inadvertently” not yet received his payment for their use. EC sent a check and negotiated a productive series of Bradbury adaptations.[10]
  • Stories with a political message, which became common in EC’s science fiction and suspense comics. Among the many topics were lynchinganti-semitism and police corruption.[11]

The three horror titles featured stories introduced by a trio of horror hosts. The Crypt Keeper introduced Tales from the Crypt, the Vault Keeper welcomed readers to The Vault of Horror and the Old Witch cackled over The Haunt of Fear. Besides gleefully recounting the unpleasant details of the stories, the characters squabbled with one another, unleashed an arsenal of puns and even insulted and taunted the readers: “Greetings, boils and ghouls…” This irreverent mockery of the audience also became the trademark attitude of Mad, and such glib give-and-take was later mimicked by many, including Stan Lee at Marvel Comics.

EC’s most enduring legacy came with Mad, which started as a side project for Kurtzman before buoying the company’s fortunes and becoming one of the country’s most notable and long-running humor publications. When satire became an industry rage in 1954 and other publishers created imitations of Mad, EC introduced a sister title, Panic, edited by Al Feldstein and using the regular Mad artists, plus Joe Orlando.

Backlash 

Beginning in the late 1940s, the comic book industry became the target of mounting public criticism for the content of comic books and their potentially harmful effects on children. The problem came to a head in 1948 with the publication by Dr. Fredric Wertham of two articles: “Horror in the Nursery” (in Collier’s) and “The Psychopathology of Comic Books” (in the American Journal of Psychotherapy). As a result, an industry trade group, the Association of Comics Magazine Publishers, was formed in 1948, but proved ineffective. EC left the association in 1950 after Gaines had an argument with its executive director, Henry Schultz. By 1954 only three comic publishers were still members, and Schultz admitted that the ACMP seals placed on comics were meaningless.[12]

In 1954, the publication of Wertham’s Seduction of the Innocent and a highly publicized Congressional hearing on juvenile delinquency cast comic books in an especially poor light. At the same time, a federal investigation led to a shakeup in the distribution companies that delivered comic books and pulp magazines across America. Sales plummeted, and several companies went out of business.

Gaines called a meeting of his fellow publishers and suggested that the comic book industry gather to fight outside censorship and help repair the industry’s damaged reputation. They formed the Comics Magazine Association of America and its Comics Code Authority. The CCA code expanded on the ACMP’s restrictions. Unlike its predecessor, the CCA code was rigorously enforced, with all comics requiring code approval prior to their publication. This not being what Gaines intended, he refused to join the association.[13] Among the Code’s new rules were that no comic book title could use the words “horror” or “terror” or “weird” on its cover. When distributors refused to handle many of his comics, Gaines ended publication of his three horror and the two SuspenStory titles on September 14, 1954. EC shifted its focus to a line of more realistic comic book titles, including M.D. and Psychoanalysis(known as the New Direction line). It also renamed its remaining science-fiction comic. Since the initial issues did not carry the Comics Code seal, the wholesalers refused to carry them. After consulting with his staff, Gaines reluctantly started submitting his comics to the Comics Code; all the New Direction titles carried the seal starting with the second issue. This attempted revamp failed commercially and after the fifth issues, all the New Direction titles were canceled.[14]

“Judgment Day” was first published in Weird Fantasy #18 (April 1953)

“Judgment Day” 

Gaines waged a number of battles with the Comics Code Authority in an attempt to keep his magazines free from censorship. In one particular example noted by comics historian Digby Diehl, Gaines threatened Judge Charles Murphy, the Comics Code Administrator, with a lawsuit when Murphy ordered EC to alter the science-fiction story “Judgment Day”, in Incredible Science Fiction #33 (Feb. 1956).[15] The story, by writer Al Feldstein and artist Joe Orlando, was a reprint from the pre-Code Weird Fantasy #18 (April 1953), inserted when the Code Authority had rejected an initial, original story, “An Eye For an Eye”, drawn by Angelo Torres,[16] but was itself also “objected to” because of “the central character being black.”[17]

The story depicted a human astronaut, a representative of the Galactic Republic, visiting the planet Cybrinia inhabited by robots. He finds the robots divided into functionally identical orange and blue races, one of which has fewer rights and privileges than the other. The astronaut decides that due to the robots’ bigotry, the Galactic Republic should not admit the planet. In the final panel, he removes his helmet, revealing himself to be a black man.[15] Murphy demanded, without any authority in the Code, that the black astronaut had to be removed.

As Diehl recounted in Tales from the Crypt: The Official Archives:

This really made ’em go bananas in the Code czar’s office. ‘Judge Murphy was off his nut. He was really out to get us’, recalls [EC editor] Feldstein. ‘I went in there with this story and Murphy says, “It can’t be a Black man”. But … but that’s the whole point of the story!’ Feldstein sputtered. When Murphy continued to insist that the Black man had to go, Feldstein put it on the line. ‘Listen’, he told Murphy, ‘you’ve been riding us and making it impossible to put out anything at all because you guys just want us out of business’. [Feldstein] reported the results of his audience with the czar to Gaines, who was furious [and] immediately picked up the phone and called Murphy. ‘This is ridiculous!’ he bellowed. ‘I’m going to call a press conference on this. You have no grounds, no basis, to do this. I’ll sue you’. Murphy made what he surely thought was a gracious concession. ‘All right. Just take off the beads of sweat’. At that, Gaines and Feldstein both went ballistic. ‘Fuck you!’ they shouted into the telephone in unison. Murphy hung up on them, but the story ran in its original form.[18]

Feldstein, interviewed for the book Tales of Terror: The EC Companion, reiterated his recollection of Murphy making the request:

So he said it can’t be a Black [person]. So I said, ‘For God’s sakes, Judge Murphy, that’s the whole point of the Goddamn story!’ So he said, ‘No, it can’t be a Black’. Bill [Gaines] just called him up [later] and raised the roof, and finally they said, ‘Well, you gotta take the perspiration off’. I had the stars glistening in the perspiration on his Black skin. Bill said, ‘Fuck you’, and he hung up.[19]

Although the story would eventually be reprinted uncensored in Incredible Science Fiction #33, that comic book was the last EC published.[18] Gaines switched his focus to EC’s Picto-Fiction titles, a line of typeset black-and-white magazines with heavily illustrated stories. Fiction was formatted to alternate illustrations with blocks of typeset text (a format now called a light novel), and some of the contents were rewrites of stories previously published in EC’s comic books. This experimental line lost money from the start and only lasted two issues per title. When EC’s national distributor went bankrupt, Gaines dropped all of his titles except Mad.[20]

Mad and later years 

Mad sold well throughout the company’s troubles, and Gaines focused exclusively on publishing it in magazine form. This move was done to placate its editor Harvey Kurtzman, who had received an offer to join the magazine Pageant,[21] but preferred to remain in charge of his own magazine. The switch also removed Mad from the auspices of the Comics Code. Kurtzman, regardless, left Mad soon afterward when Gaines would not give him 51 percent control of the magazine, and Gaines brought back Al Feldstein as Kurtzman’s successor. The magazine enjoyed great success for decades afterward.[22]

Gaines sold the company in the 1960s, and it was eventually absorbed into the same corporation that later purchased DC Comics and Warner Bros.

The Tales from the Crypt title was licensed for a movie of that name in 1972. This was followed by another film, The Vault of Horror, in 1973. The omnibus movies Creepshow (1982) and Creepshow 2, while using original scripts written by Stephen King and George A. Romero, were inspired by EC’s horror comics[citation needed] and hosted by a Ghoulunatic-inspired[citation needed] character. Creepshow 2 included an animated interstitial material between vignettes, featuring a young protagonist who goes to great length to acquire and keep possession of an issue of the comic book Creepshow.

In 1989, Tales from the Crypt began airing on the U.S. cable-TV network HBO. The series ran through 1996, comprising 93 episodes and seven seasons. Tales from the Crypt spawned two children’s television series on broadcast TVTales from the Cryptkeeper and Secrets of the Cryptkeeper’s Haunted House. It also spawned three “Tales from the Crypt”-branded movies, Demon KnightBordello of Blood, and Ritual. In 1997, HBO followed the TV series with the similar Perversions of Science, the episodes of which were based on stories from EC’s Weird Science. It ran 10 episodes.

Educational Comics 

225 Lafayette Street, home of EC Comics

The firm, first known as Educational Comics, was founded by Max Gaines, former editor of the comic-book company All-American Publications. When that company merged with DC Comics in 1944, Gaines retained rights to the comic book Picture Stories from the Bible, and began his new company with a plan to market comics about science, history and the Bible to schools and churches. A decade earlier, Max Gaines had been one of the pioneers of the comic book form, with Eastern Color Printing‘s proto-comic book Funnies on Parade, and with Dell Publishing‘s Famous Funnies: A Carnival of Comics,[1] considered by historians the first true American comic book.[2]

Entertaining Comics[edit]

When Max Gaines died in 1947 in a boating accident, his son William inherited the comics company. After four years (1942–46) in the Army Air Corps, Gaines had returned home to finish school at New York University, planning to work as a chemistry teacher. He never taught but instead took over the family business. In 1949 and 1950, Bill Gaines began a line of new titles featuring horrorsuspensescience fictionmilitary fiction and crime fiction. His editors, Al Feldstein and Harvey Kurtzman, who also drew covers and stories, gave assignments to such prominent and highly accomplished freelance artists as Johnny CraigReed CrandallJack DavisWill ElderGeorge EvansFrank FrazettaGraham IngelsJack KamenBernard KrigsteinJoe OrlandoJohn SeverinAl WilliamsonBasil Wolverton, and Wally Wood. With input from Gaines, the stories were written by Kurtzman, Feldstein and Craig. Other writers including Carl WesslerJack Oleck and Otto Binder were later brought on board.

EC had success with its fresh approach and pioneered in forming relationships with its readers through its letters to the editor and its fan organization, the National EC Fan-Addict Club. EC Comics promoted its stable of illustrators, allowing each to sign his art and encouraging them to develop idiosyncratic styles; the company additionally published one-page biographies of them in the comic books. This was in contrast to the industry’s common practice, in which credits were often missing, although some artists at other companies, such as the Jack KirbyJoe Simon team, Jack Cole and Bob Kane had been prominently promoted.

EC published distinct lines of titles under its Entertaining Comics umbrella. Most notorious were its horror books, Tales from the CryptThe Vault of Horrorand The Haunt of Fear.[3] These titles reveled in a gruesome joie de vivre, with grimly ironic fates meted out to many of the stories’ protagonists. The company’s war comics Frontline Combat and Two-Fisted Tales often featured weary-eyed, unheroic stories out of step with the jingoistic times. Shock SuspenStories tackled weighty political and social issues such as racismsexdrug use and the American way of life. EC always claimed to be “proudest of our science fiction titles”,[4] with Weird Science and Weird Fantasy publishing stories unlike the space opera found in such titles as Fiction House‘s Planet ComicsCrime SuspenStories had many parallels with film noir. As noted by Max Allan Collins in his story annotations for Russ Cochran‘s 1983 hardcover reprint of Crime SuspenStories, Johnny Craig had developed a “film noir-ish bag of effects” in his visuals, while characters and themes found in the crime stories often showed the strong influence of writers associated with film noir, notably James M. Cain. Craig excelled in drawing stories of domestic scheming and conflict, leading David Hadju to observe:

To young people of the postwar years, when the mainstream culture glorified suburban domesticity as the modern American ideal– the life that made the Cold War worth fighting– nothing else in the panels of EC comics, not the giant alien cockroach that ate earthlings, not the baseball game played with human body parts, was so subversive as the idea that the exits of the Long Island Expressway emptied onto levels of Hell.[5]

Superior illustrations of stories with surprise endings became EC’s trademark. Gaines would generally stay up late and read large amounts of material while seeking “springboards” for story concepts. The next day he would present each premise until Feldstein found one that he thought he could develop into a story.[6] At EC’s peak, Feldstein edited seven titles while Kurtzman handled three. Artists were assigned stories specific to their styles. Davis and Ingels often drew gruesome, supernatural-themed stories, while Kamen and Evans did tamer material.[7]

With hundreds of stories written, common themes surfaced. Some of EC’s more well-known themes include:

  • An ordinary situation given an ironic and gruesome twist, often as poetic justice for a character’s crimes. In “Collection Completed” a man takes up taxidermy in order to annoy his wife. When he kills and stuffs her beloved cat, the wife snaps and kills him, stuffing and mounting his body. In “Revulsion”, a spaceship pilot is bothered by insects due to a past experience when he found one in his food. At the conclusion of the story, a giant alien insect screams in horror at finding the dead pilot in his salad. Dissection, the broiling of lobstersMexican jumping beansfur coats and fishingare just a small sample of the kind of situations and objects used in this fashion.
  • The “Grim Fairy Tale”, featuring gruesome interpretations of such fairy tales as “Hansel and Gretel“, “Sleeping Beauty” and “Little Red Riding Hood“.[8]
  • Siamese twins were a popular theme, primarily in EC’s three horror comics. No fewer than nine Siamese twin stories appeared in EC’s horror and crime comics from 1950 to 1954. In an interview, Feldstein speculated that he and Gaines wrote so many Siamese twin stories because of the interdependence they had on each other.[9]
  • Adaptations of Ray Bradbury science-fiction stories, which appeared in two dozen EC comics starting in 1952. It began inauspiciously, with an incident in which Feldstein and Gaines plagiarized two of Bradbury’s stories and combined them into a single tale. Learning of the story, Bradbury sent a note praising them, while remarking that he had “inadvertently” not yet received his payment for their use. EC sent a check and negotiated a productive series of Bradbury adaptations.[10]
  • Stories with a political message, which became common in EC’s science fiction and suspense comics. Among the many topics were lynchinganti-semitism and police corruption.[11]

The three horror titles featured stories introduced by a trio of horror hosts. The Crypt Keeper introduced Tales from the Crypt, the Vault Keeper welcomed readers to The Vault of Horror and the Old Witch cackled over The Haunt of Fear. Besides gleefully recounting the unpleasant details of the stories, the characters squabbled with one another, unleashed an arsenal of puns and even insulted and taunted the readers: “Greetings, boils and ghouls…” This irreverent mockery of the audience also became the trademark attitude of Mad, and such glib give-and-take was later mimicked by many, including Stan Lee at Marvel Comics.

EC’s most enduring legacy came with Mad, which started as a side project for Kurtzman before buoying the company’s fortunes and becoming one of the country’s most notable and long-running humor publications. When satire became an industry rage in 1954 and other publishers created imitations of Mad, EC introduced a sister title, Panic, edited by Al Feldstein and using the regular Mad artists, plus Joe Orlando.

Backlash 

Beginning in the late 1940s, the comic book industry became the target of mounting public criticism for the content of comic books and their potentially harmful effects on children. The problem came to a head in 1948 with the publication by Dr. Fredric Wertham of two articles: “Horror in the Nursery” (in Collier’s) and “The Psychopathology of Comic Books” (in the American Journal of Psychotherapy). As a result, an industry trade group, the Association of Comics Magazine Publishers, was formed in 1948, but proved ineffective. EC left the association in 1950 after Gaines had an argument with its executive director, Henry Schultz. By 1954 only three comic publishers were still members, and Schultz admitted that the ACMP seals placed on comics were meaningless.[12]

In 1954, the publication of Wertham’s Seduction of the Innocent and a highly publicized Congressional hearing on juvenile delinquency cast comic books in an especially poor light. At the same time, a federal investigation led to a shakeup in the distribution companies that delivered comic books and pulp magazines across America. Sales plummeted, and several companies went out of business.

Gaines called a meeting of his fellow publishers and suggested that the comic book industry gather to fight outside censorship and help repair the industry’s damaged reputation. They formed the Comics Magazine Association of America and its Comics Code Authority. The CCA code expanded on the ACMP’s restrictions. Unlike its predecessor, the CCA code was rigorously enforced, with all comics requiring code approval prior to their publication. This not being what Gaines intended, he refused to join the association.[13] Among the Code’s new rules were that no comic book title could use the words “horror” or “terror” or “weird” on its cover. When distributors refused to handle many of his comics, Gaines ended publication of his three horror and the two SuspenStory titles on September 14, 1954. EC shifted its focus to a line of more realistic comic book titles, including M.D. and Psychoanalysis(known as the New Direction line). It also renamed its remaining science-fiction comic. Since the initial issues did not carry the Comics Code seal, the wholesalers refused to carry them. After consulting with his staff, Gaines reluctantly started submitting his comics to the Comics Code; all the New Direction titles carried the seal starting with the second issue. This attempted revamp failed commercially and after the fifth issues, all the New Direction titles were canceled.[14]

“Judgment Day” was first published in Weird Fantasy #18 (April 1953)

“Judgment Day”[edit]

Gaines waged a number of battles with the Comics Code Authority in an attempt to keep his magazines free from censorship. In one particular example noted by comics historian Digby Diehl, Gaines threatened Judge Charles Murphy, the Comics Code Administrator, with a lawsuit when Murphy ordered EC to alter the science-fiction story “Judgment Day”, in Incredible Science Fiction #33 (Feb. 1956).[15] The story, by writer Al Feldstein and artist Joe Orlando, was a reprint from the pre-Code Weird Fantasy #18 (April 1953), inserted when the Code Authority had rejected an initial, original story, “An Eye For an Eye”, drawn by Angelo Torres,[16] but was itself also “objected to” because of “the central character being black.”[17]

The story depicted a human astronaut, a representative of the Galactic Republic, visiting the planet Cybrinia inhabited by robots. He finds the robots divided into functionally identical orange and blue races, one of which has fewer rights and privileges than the other. The astronaut decides that due to the robots’ bigotry, the Galactic Republic should not admit the planet. In the final panel, he removes his helmet, revealing himself to be a black man.[15] Murphy demanded, without any authority in the Code, that the black astronaut had to be removed.

As Diehl recounted in Tales from the Crypt: The Official Archives:

This really made ’em go bananas in the Code czar’s office. ‘Judge Murphy was off his nut. He was really out to get us’, recalls [EC editor] Feldstein. ‘I went in there with this story and Murphy says, “It can’t be a Black man”. But … but that’s the whole point of the story!’ Feldstein sputtered. When Murphy continued to insist that the Black man had to go, Feldstein put it on the line. ‘Listen’, he told Murphy, ‘you’ve been riding us and making it impossible to put out anything at all because you guys just want us out of business’. [Feldstein] reported the results of his audience with the czar to Gaines, who was furious [and] immediately picked up the phone and called Murphy. ‘This is ridiculous!’ he bellowed. ‘I’m going to call a press conference on this. You have no grounds, no basis, to do this. I’ll sue you’. Murphy made what he surely thought was a gracious concession. ‘All right. Just take off the beads of sweat’. At that, Gaines and Feldstein both went ballistic. ‘Fuck you!’ they shouted into the telephone in unison. Murphy hung up on them, but the story ran in its original form.[18]

Feldstein, interviewed for the book Tales of Terror: The EC Companion, reiterated his recollection of Murphy making the request:

So he said it can’t be a Black [person]. So I said, ‘For God’s sakes, Judge Murphy, that’s the whole point of the Goddamn story!’ So he said, ‘No, it can’t be a Black’. Bill [Gaines] just called him up [later] and raised the roof, and finally they said, ‘Well, you gotta take the perspiration off’. I had the stars glistening in the perspiration on his Black skin. Bill said, ‘Fuck you’, and he hung up.[19]

Although the story would eventually be reprinted uncensored in Incredible Science Fiction #33, that comic book was the last EC published.[18] Gaines switched his focus to EC’s Picto-Fiction titles, a line of typeset black-and-white magazines with heavily illustrated stories. Fiction was formatted to alternate illustrations with blocks of typeset text (a format now called a light novel), and some of the contents were rewrites of stories previously published in EC’s comic books. This experimental line lost money from the start and only lasted two issues per title. When EC’s national distributor went bankrupt, Gaines dropped all of his titles except Mad.[20]

Mad and later years[edit]

Mad sold well throughout the company’s troubles, and Gaines focused exclusively on publishing it in magazine form. This move was done to placate its editor Harvey Kurtzman, who had received an offer to join the magazine Pageant,[21] but preferred to remain in charge of his own magazine. The switch also removed Mad from the auspices of the Comics Code. Kurtzman, regardless, left Mad soon afterward when Gaines would not give him 51 percent control of the magazine, and Gaines brought back Al Feldstein as Kurtzman’s successor. The magazine enjoyed great success for decades afterward.[22]

Gaines sold the company in the 1960s, and it was eventually absorbed into the same corporation that later purchased DC Comics and Warner Bros.

The Tales from the Crypt title was licensed for a movie of that name in 1972. This was followed by another film, The Vault of Horror, in 1973. The omnibus movies Creepshow (1982) and Creepshow 2, while using original scripts written by Stephen King and George A. Romero, were inspired by EC’s horror comics[citation needed] and hosted by a Ghoulunatic-inspired[citation needed] character. Creepshow 2 included an animated interstitial material between vignettes, featuring a young protagonist who goes to great length to acquire and keep possession of an issue of the comic book Creepshow.

In 1989, Tales from the Crypt began airing on the U.S. cable-TV network HBO. The series ran through 1996, comprising 93 episodes and seven seasons. Tales from the Crypt spawned two children’s television series on broadcast TVTales from the Cryptkeeper and Secrets of the Cryptkeeper’s Haunted House. It also spawned three “Tales from the Crypt”-branded movies, Demon KnightBordello of Blood, and Ritual. In 1997, HBO followed the TV series with the similar Perversions of Science, the episodes of which were based on stories from EC’s Weird Science. It ran 10 episodes.

 

Jim Lee, Drawing Process

mattkprovideo.com/2017/10/16/drawing/

Jim Lee, Drawing Process

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jim_Lee

 

Jim Lee

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jim Lee
12.19.10JimLeeByLuigiNovi1.jpg

Lee at a signing for his coffee table art book, Icons: The DC Comics & Wildstorm Art of Jim Lee, at Midtown Comics in Manhattan
Born August 11, 1964 (age 53)
Seoul, South Korea
Nationality Korean American
Area(s) Writer, Artist, Publisher
Notable works
All Star Batman & Robin, the Boy Wonder
Batman: Hush
Superman: For Tomorrow
Uncanny X-Men
WildC.A.T.s
X-Men vol. 2
Awards Harvey Award, 1990
Inkpot Award, 1992
Wizard Fan Award, 1996, 2002, 2003
Jim Lee
Hangul 이용철
Revised Romanization I Yong-cheol
McCune–Reischauer Yi Yong-ch’ǒl

Jim Lee (Korean 이용철; born August 11, 1964) is a Korean American comic book artist, writer, editor, and publisher. He entered the industry in 1987 as an artist for Marvel Comics, illustrating titles such as Alpha Flight and The Punisher War Journal, before gaining popularity on The Uncanny X-MenX-Men No. 1, the 1991 spin-off series premiere that Lee penciled and co-wrote with Chris Claremont, remains the best-selling comic book of all time, according to Guinness World Records.

In 1992, Lee and several other artists formed their own publishing company, Image Comics, to publish their creator-owned titles, with Lee publishing titles such as WildC.A.T.s and Gen¹³ through his studio Wildstorm Productions. Eschewing the role of publisher in order to return to illustration, Lee sold Wildstorm in 1998 to DC Comics, where he continued to run it as a DC imprint until 2010, as well as illustrating successful titles set in DC’s main fictional universe, such as the year-long “Batman: Hush” and “Superman: For Tomorrow” storylines. On February 18, 2010, Jim Lee was announced as the new Co-Publisher of DC Comics with Dan DiDio, both replacing Paul Levitz.

He has received a Harvey AwardInkpot Award and three Wizard Fan Awards in recognition for his work.

Early life 

Lee was born on August 11, 1964 in Seoul, South Korea.[1][2] He grew up in St. Louis, Missouri,[3][4] where he lived a “typical middle-class childhood”.[4] Lee attended River Bend Elementary School in Chesterfield and later St. Louis Country Day School, where he drew posters for school plays. Having had to learn English when he first came to the U.S. presented the young Lee with the sense of being an outsider, as did the “preppy, upper-class” atmosphere of Country Day. As a result, on the rare occasions that his parents bought him comics, Lee’s favorite characters were the X-Men, because they were outsiders themselves. Lee says that he benefited as an artist by connecting with characters that were themselves disenfranchised, like Spider-Man, or who were born of such backgrounds, such as Superman, who was created by two Jewish men from Cleveland to lift their spirits during the Depression. His classmates predicted in his senior yearbook that he would found his own comic book company.[3][4] Despite this, Lee was resigned to following his father’s career in medicine, attending Princeton University to study psychology, with the intention of becoming a medical doctor.

Comics career 

Rise to fame at Marvel Comics 

In 1986, as he was preparing to graduate, Lee took an art class that reignited his love of drawing, and led to his rediscovery of comics at a time when seminal works such as Frank Miller‘s The Dark Knight Returns and Alan Moore and Dave Gibbons‘ Watchmen spurred a renaissance within the American comics industry.[4] After obtaining his psychology degree,[5] he decided to postpone applying to medical school, and earned the reluctant blessing of his parents by allotting himself one year to succeed, vowing that he would attend medical school if he did not break into the comic book industry in that time. He submitted samples to various publishers, but did not find success.[4] When Lee befriended St. Louis-area comics artists Don Secrease and Rick Burchett, they convinced him he needed to show his portfolio to editors in person, prompting Lee to attend a New York comics convention,[3] where he met editor Archie Goodwin. Goodwin invited Lee to Marvel Comics, where the aspiring artist received his first assignment by editor Carl Potts, who hired him to pencil the mid-list series Alpha Flight, seguéing from that title in 1989 to Punisher: War Journal.[4][6] Lee’s work on the Punisher: War Journal was inspired by artists such as Frank Miller, David RossKevin Nowlan, and Whilce Portacio, as well as Japanese manga.[6]

In 1989, Lee filled in for regular illustrator Marc Silvestri on Uncanny X-Men No. 248 and did another guest stint on issues No. 256 through No. 258 as part of the “Acts of Vengeance” storyline, eventually becoming the series’ ongoing artist with issue No. 267, following Silvestri’s departure. During his stint on Uncanny Lee first worked with inker Scott Williams, who would become a long-time collaborator. During his run on the title, Lee co-created the character Gambit with long-time X-Men writer Chris Claremont.

Gatefold cover art from X-Men #1

Lee’s artwork quickly gained popularity in the eyes of enthusiastic fans, which allowed him to gain greater creative control of the franchise. In 1991, Lee helped launch a second X-Men series simply called X-Men volume 2, as both the artist and as co-writer with Claremont.[7]X-Men vol. 2 No. 1 is still the best-selling comic book of all-time with sales of over 8.1 million copies and nearly $7 million, according to a public proclamation by Guinness World Records at the 2010 San Diego Comic-Con.[8][9][10][11] The sales figures were generated in part by publishing the issue with five different variant covers, four of which show different characters from the book that formed a single image when laid side by side, and a fifth, gatefold cover of that combined image, large numbers of which were purchased by retailers, who anticipated fans and speculators who would buy multiple copies in order to acquire a complete collection of the covers.[12] Lee designed new character uniforms for the series, including those worn by CyclopsJean GreyRoguePsylocke and Storm and created the villain Omega Red. Actor/comedian Taran Killam, who has ventured into comics writing with The Illegitimates, has cited X-Men No. 1 as the book that inspired his interest in comics.[13]

Stan Lee interviewed Jim Lee in the documentary series The Comic Book Greats.

Image Comics and WildStorm, return to Marvel 

WildC.A.T.s promotional artwork.

Enticed by the idea of being able to exert more control over his own work, in 1992, Lee accepted the invitation to join six other artists who broke away from Marvel to form Image Comics, which would publish their creator-owned titles.[5] Lee’s group of titles was initially called Aegis Entertainment before being christened Wildstorm Productions, and published Lee’s initial title WildC.A.T.s, which Lee pencilled and co-wrote, and other series created by Lee in the same shared universe. The other major series of the initial years of Wildstorm, for which Lee either created characters, co-plotted or provided art for, included StormwatchDeathblow and Gen¹³.

In 1993, Lee and his friend, Valiant Comics publisher Steve Massarsky, arranged a Valiant-Image Comics crossover miniseries called Deathmate, in which the Valiant characters would interact with those of Wildstorm, and of Lee’s fellow Image partner, Rob Liefeld. The miniseries would consist of four “center books”, (each one denoted by a color rather than an issue number), two each produced by the respective companies, plus a prologue and epilogue book. Wildstorm produced Deathmate Black, with Lee himself contributing to the writing. He illustrated the covers for that book, the Deathmate Tourbook and the prologue book, as well as contributing to the prologue’s interior inks.

Wildstorm would expand its line to include other ongoing titles whose creative work was handled by other writers and artists, some of which were spinoffs of the earlier titles, or properties owned by other creators, such as Whilce Portacio‘s Wetworks. As publisher, Lee later expanded his comics line creating two publishing imprints of Wildstorm, Homage and Cliffhanger (that years later merged and were replaced by a single Wildstorm Signature imprint), to publish creator-owned comics by some selected creators of the US comics industry.

Lee and Rob Liefeld, another Marvel-illustrator-turned-Image-founder, returned to Marvel in 1996 to participate in a reboot of several classic characters; the project was known as Heroes Reborn. While Liefeld reworked Captain America and The Avengers, Lee plotted Iron Man[14] and wrote and illustrated Fantastic Four.[15]Halfway through the project, Lee’s studio took over Liefeld’s two titles, finishing all four series. According to Lee, Marvel proposed continuing the Heroes Reborn lineup indefinitely, but under the condition that Lee would draw at least one of them himself, which he refused to do. Instead, he accepted an offer to re-imagine and relaunch (in the role of editor) three mainstream Marvel Universe titles: DefendersDoctor Strange, and Nick Fury.[16] Though scheduled to debut in December 1997, these three relaunches never appeared.

Lee returned to Wildstorm, where he would publish series such as The Authority and Planetary, as well as Alan Moore‘s imprint, America’s Best Comics. Lee himself wrote and illustrated a 12-issue series called Divine Right: The Adventures of Max Faraday, in which an internet slacker inadvertently manages to download the secrets of the universe, and is thrown into a wild fantasy world.

Move to DC Comics 

Lee’s versions of Superman and Batman.

Because he felt his role as publisher and his growing family demands interfered with his role as an artist, Lee left Image Comics and sold Wildstorm to DC Comics in late 1998,[17][18] enabling him to focus once again on art.[4][5] He drew a “Batman Black and White” backup story for the first issue of Batman: Gotham Knights(March 2000).[19] In 2003 he collaborated on a 12-issue run on Batman with writer Jeph Loeb.[20] “Hush” became a sales success. He followed this up in 2004 by illustrating “For Tomorrow“, a 12-issue story in Superman by writer Brian Azzarello.[21] In 2005, Lee teamed with Frank Miller on the new series All Star Batman & Robin, the Boy Wonder,[22] a series plagued by delays. Lee himself took full responsibility for the delays, explaining that his involvement with the DC Universe Online video game were the cause, and not Miller’s scripts, which had been completed for some time.[23][24][25]

Lee continued to run Wildstorm as Editorial Director, sometimes working on both DC and Wildstorm properties simultaneously. In September 2006, Jim Lee returned to WildC.A.T.s with Grant Morrison as the writer, pencilling both WildC.A.T.s and All Star Batman & Robin, the Boy Wonder, both of which were characterized by publication delays. The gap between All-Star Batman and Robin No. 4 and No. 5 was one year, and to date, only one issue of WildC.A.T.s vol. 4 has been published. Lee drew alternative cover art for the Infinite Crisis series.

In February 2006 it was announced that Lee would be involved with the concept art for the upcoming DC Comics MMORPGDC Universe Online.[5] In 2008, Lee was named the Executive Creative Director of the forthcoming game, which at that time was expected to be released in 2009.[26]

In 2009 Lee provided artwork for the album booklet for Daughtry‘s 2009 album Leave This Town.

In February 2010 Lee and Dan DiDio were named Co-Publishers of DC Comics by DC Entertainment President Diane Nelson.[27][28][29] According to Lee, this does not indicate another move away from the creative side of comics, as his Co-Publishing duties grant him greater creative involvement in the entire DC line and allow him to illustrate titles, such as Dark Knight: Boy Wonder, a re-branded conclusion to the story he and Frank Miller began in All Star Batman & Robin, the Boy Wonder.[4][30] He was to supply the painted art over Giuseppe Camuncoli‘s layouts in Batman: Europa #1, a 2011 miniseries[31] inspired by Lee’s time living in Italy,[32] though as of June 2011, neither of these projects have materialized. According to a March 2013 article, DC insists that Europa is not cancelled.[33] DC announced they were ending the Wildstorm imprint in September 2010.[34]

Lee at the San Diego Comic Con 2009

In September 2011, DC Comics instituted a program called The New 52, in which the publisher cancelled all of its superhero titles and relaunched 52 new series with No. 1 issues, wiping out most of the then-current continuity. Lee and writer Geoff Johns, DC Comics’ Chief Creative Officer, are the architects of the relaunch, which was initiated with a new Justice League series, written and illustrated by Johns and Lee, respectively.[35] The series’ first story arc was a new origin of the Justice League, which depicted the return of DC’s primary superheroes to the team.[36] Lee’s illustration for the cover of issue No. 12 drew media attention for its depiction of Supermanand Wonder Woman in a passionate embrace, a rendition that Lee said was inspired by Gustav Klimt‘s painting The Kiss and Alfred Eisenstaedt‘s 1945 photograph V-J Day in Times Square.[37][38][39][40]

In October of that year, DC Entertainment and Kia Motors America entered a partnership to benefit We Can Be Heroes, a campaign dedicated to fighting hunger in the Horn of Africa. The campaign involves the creation of eight Justice League-inspired vehicles, on whose designs Lee collaborated. Each vehicle is tied thematically to a member of the Justice League,[41] the first of which was a Batman-themed Kia Optima.[42] A Superman-themed version inspired by Lee’s art followed in February 2013.[43]

Lee at the August 31, 2011 midnight signing of FlashpointNo. 5 and Justice League No. 1 at Midtown Comics, which initiated DC’s The New 52initiative.

In 2013, Lee designed a new version of the Mortal Kombat character Scorpion for use in the DC fighting video game Injustice: Gods Among Us.[44]

On May 4, 2013,[45] DC published a Free Comic Book Day sneak preview of Superman Unchained, an ongoing series written by Scott Snyder and illustrated by Lee, which was published on June 12, 2013, and intended to coincide with the feature film Man of Steel, which opened two days later.[46]

In 2014, General Mills enlisted the help of DC Comics to create new designs for its monster-themed cereals in time for Halloween. The designs, revealed on August 6, consisted of a Boo Berry design by Lee, a Count Chocolua design by Terry Dodson and a Franken-Berry design by Dave Johnson. Describing the task of designing a cartoon character, Lee explained, “Drawing simpler characters is a lot more work and harder than drawing something that’s more complicated or has a lot of renderings. Every line counts and every distance between the eyes and the ears, it’s all super critical.”[47]

In 2015, Lee drew The Multiversity: Mastermen, the seventh issue of Grant Morrison‘s The Multiversity project.[48]

November of that year saw the debut of the miniseres Batman: Europa, on which Lee collaborated with writers Brian Azzarello and Matteo Casali and artist Giuseppe Camuncoli.[49] The book, which was inspired by Lee’s time living in Italy,[32] and was announced by DC in 2004, but not produced. It was then resolicited in 2011, and indicated that Lee would supply painted art over Camuncoli’s layouts,[49][50] but was again delayed.[33][49] When it was revived again in 2015, it was decided that Lee would provide conventional pencils and inks, rather than painted art.[49] Lee also announced in September 2015 that he and Frank Miller may return to finish All-Star Batman and Robin, saying that Frank Miller had a “great” ending to the storyline, and that a break from drawing Batman, and having resumed work on that character with Europa, Lee was anxious to return to that book.[51] In 2016, Lee was the main artist on the one-shot Harley Quinn and the Suicide Squad April Fool’s Special drawing pages 1–10, 21-30; with artist Sean Galloway drawing pages 11–20. That same year, Lee and writer Rob Williams collaborated on a new Suicide Squad series as part of the DC Rebirth relaunch.[52] In October 2017, Lee and writer James Tynion IV will launch the Immortal Men series as part of DC’s “Dark Matter” line.[53]

Technique and materials[edit]

Lee is known to use F lead for his pencil work.[54][55] While inking his own pencils on The Punisher War Journal, Lee began using a crowquillnib for the first time.[6]

In talking about the artist’s work ethic, Lee has said, “Sometimes I wonder if we ever really improve as artists or if the nirvana derived from completing a piece blinds us enough to love what we have created and move on to the next piece. If we could see the work as it is, with years of reflection in the here and now, how many images would end up in the trash rather than on the racks?”[56] 

Criticism[edit]

In a 1996 interview with The Comics Journal, writer/illustrator Barry Windsor-Smith criticized the depth of the work of artists like Lee and Rob Liefeld, and those whom they influenced, (whom he referred to as “the Liefelds and the Lees”), stating, “Your Jim Lees and all this lot, their product hasn’t got anything to do with them, you know? There is no emotional investment…I look at Jim Lee’s work, and the guy’s learning how to draw. He has some craft to what he does…I don’t think it has even crossed their minds that comic books can be a medium for intimate self-expression.” The Comics Journal publisher Gary Groth concurred, stating “Lee’s work is obviously more technically accomplished than Liefeld’s, but otherwise it’s conceptually comparable.” Windsor-Smith added that he believed in the Image Comics‘ founders’ exodus from Marvel Comics as an important step for creator autonomy and creator rights, and was angered when they returned to Marvel to do “Heroes Reborn“.

Personal life 

Lee, his wife Carla Michelle and their children lived in Italy for a time.[60] They had three children as of March 1999.[17] In 2012, when Carla was pregnant again, Lee included a tribute to her in Justice League #5, writing “I LOVE CARLA” on the shattered windshield of a car onto which Batman jumps.[59] As of August 2013, Lee and Carla Michelle had eight children, with their ninth due later that year.

In the 1990s, Lee bought two pages of Jack Kirby concept art, which Kirby had created for a film adaptation of Roger Zelazny‘s novel Lord of Light, as part of the cover story to smuggle Americans out of Iran during the 1980 hostage crisis. Lee purchased the art at a Sotheby’s auction via Barry Geller, the producer of the faux film, who was selling it to help pay for his child’s college tuition. Although the CIA operation that rescued the Americans remained classified for another 17 years, and thus Lee had no idea of the pages’ historical significance, nor did Geller know their true monetary value when he sold them to help pay his son’s college tuition (with Kirby’s permission). Both Lee and Geller learned of the true story behind the art years later with the rest of the public. In August 2013, four of Lee’s children were headed for college, and he and Carla decided to auction off the art through Heritage Auctions in order to pay for their education.

 

http://www.dccomics.com/talent/jim-lee

Jim Lee

Credited as:   Penciller, Cover, Inker, Variant Cover, Artist, Writer, Layout, Colorist, Story By, Covers, Designer 

Jim Lee, a world-renowned comic book artist, writer, editor and publisher, is now currently the Co-Publisher of DC Entertainment (DCE) alongside Dan DiDio.

Known for his incredibly detailed and dynamic artistic style, Lee is one of the most revered and respected artists in American comics. A veritable legend in the industry, he has received numerous accolades and recognition for his work, including the Harvey Special Award for New Talent in 1990, the Inkpot Award in 1992, and the Wizard Fan Award in 1996, 2002 and 2003.

Prior to his current post at DCE, Lee served as Editorial Director, where he oversaw WildStorm Studios and was also the artist for many of DC Comics’ bestselling comic books and graphic novels, including ALL STAR BATMAN AND ROBIN, THE BOY WONDER, BATMAN: HUSH, and SUPERMAN: FOR TOMORROW. He also serves as the Executive Creative Director for the DC Universe Online (DCUO) massively multiplayer action game from Sony Online Entertainment (SOE).

Jim Lee was born in Seoul, South Korea in 1964 but moved with his family to St. Louis, Missouri when he was young.  After graduating cum laude with a BA in Psychology from Princeton University in 1986, he started his professional career at Marvel Comics where his work on the X-Men continues to hold the all-time sales record for single-issue sales at an incredible 8 million copies sold in one month.

In 1992, he started his own production company, WildStorm Productions, and co-founded Image Comics, an independent comics company that quickly grew to become the third largest North American publisher.  Two of his creations, WILDCATS and GEN 13, saw life beyond comics as a CBS Saturday morning cartoon and as a DTV animated movie distributed by Disney, respectively.  In 1998, DC Comics purchased WildStorm Productions and Lee left Image Comics to join the DC Entertainment creative team.

In 2010, Titan Books released the 300-page artbook of Jim Lee’s DC Comics work titled ICONS: THE DC & WILDSTORM ART OF JIM LEE. In 2011, Lee was integral in the launch of DC Entertainment’s NEW 52 initiative, designing the new, more contemporary costumes for some of the DC universe’s most iconic characters, including Batman, Superman and Wonder Woman.